Ringways References

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This is an experiment into how references might be collated and published for the Ringways articles. The references will not be placed on the pages themselves, to avoid it becoming too academic and even less readable, but instead will be collated here, with each key point in the text married up with its source.


Background

Early plans

New Road opened ca. 1756
Royal Commission on London Traffic
SJ 16
Rees Jeffreys' ring road proposal
SJ 16 has outline only

Traffic Board for London
SJ 16
Arterial Routes built by 1930s
Highway Development Survey 1937
SJ 16 has outline


Wartime plans

The County of London Plan, 1943
CM 09 & SJ 05
Copy held at London Metropolitan Archives

The Greater London Plan, 1944
CM 10 & SJ 06
Copy held at London Metropolitan Archives


Post-war and beyond

Proposal to reverse roles of A and B rings
MT 95/86 discusses little else
Land for road construction not protected
M1 to terminate near Marble Arch
MT 112/67 & SJ 15
Motorway Box replaces A- and B-rings
Eastern side was pre-existing road proposal
LCC plans and omission of Motorway Box
West Cross Route planning status in 1962

GLC purpose included planning of road network
Consultants brought in to assist GLC with planning
GLC unhappy with use of Abercrombie terminology
GLC's overall plan and timescale
HLG 159/572 has full timescale, and costs the scheme at £1.7bn
Evening Standard report with incorrect cost and rehousing numbers
Camden suggesting higher capacity on North Cross Route


Epilogue

Correspondence between Ministry and GLC
T 319/1842 has memos in 1969 asking about "killing the whole project"
Estimate of cost at 1970
T 319/1842 has the GLC estimating £1,700m
GLDP as biggest inquiry in British history
Protest groups set up in South West London
Grove Park Group's analysis and report
Coalition of South London councils
Barnes Motorway Action Group newspaper spread
Layfield Report decision on Ringway 1
HLG 159/626 has the full decision on transport

DoE memo to Treasury recommending Layfield's proposals
Government policy on Motorway Box
Leaks in Sunday Times and Private Eye
T 319/2655 has details - specific editions are:
Sunday Times 11/02/1973; "The Motor Car Wins its Biggest Victory"
Sunday Times 18/02/1973; "Full Cabinet approves London's Motorway Box"
Private Eye 23/02/1973
Treasury memo puts Ringway 1 "out of the question"
T 319/2655 includes memo dated 20/02/1973 from Diana Seammen to Mr Howard, stating "the Inner Motorway Box will never be implemented"
MoT merges R3 and R4 to form M25
GLC cancels R2 plans in favour of M25
A102(M), A40(M), M41 open to traffic by 1973
Motorways within Greater London downgraded


Ringway 1

Encircling 60 square miles
R1 as 'minimum solution'

Serve as local distributor and long-distance bypass
Estimated 36,000 people rehomed


North Cross Route

Route, Willesden Junction - Hackney Wick
T 319/1842 contains the standard GLC route map for Ringway 1
Route published in 1966
MT 106/437 for engineering plans, route study and publicity
Demolition of Sigmund Freud's house
Link roads from Willesden to Harlesden, M40 and M4
MT 106/437

British Rail's objection to motorway over Camden Goods Yard
PNLR terminus on Ringway 1
MT 106/437 in plan sheets
M11 to Angel link alternative route on line of A10
MT 106/437 in study on alternative links to York Way and Hackney Wick
Barbara Castle newspaper controversy
MT 106/437


East Cross Route

Route, Hackney Wick to Kidbrooke
Road is as-built before 1973
T 319/1842 contains the standard GLC route map for Ringway 1
Existing proposal by London County Council
GLC/TD/C/P/01 held at London Metropolitan Archives
Sections of road previously under motorway restrictions
Sections of East Cross Route designated A106
OS Landranger map (details to follow)

A13 interchange as temporary measure
Third Blackwall Tunnel bore planned
A-Z map (details to follow)
Kidbrooke Interchange (A2/A20/Ringway 1)
HLG 159/1257


South Cross Route

Route, Kidbrooke - Clapham Junction
T 319/1842 contains the standard GLC route map for Ringway 1
Kidbrooke Interchange (A2/A20/Ringway 1)
HLG 159/1257
Blackheath tunnel and alternative line proposals
HLG 159/1257 for proposals made by LB Greenwich and Buchanan
MT 106/299 for report in South London Press, 09/04/1971, including trial bore holes made by GLC
New Cross Spur interchange
Split carriageways at Denmark Hill

Brixton section, and redevelopment of Brixton
LBL/BDD/1/16/1, LBL/BDD/1/16/2 and LBL/BDD/2/4 for various incarnations of the Brixton Town Centre Redevelopment Plan within the Ringway timeframe
Barrier Block (Southwyck House), Brixton
Urban 75 have a well-researched report from original files at Lambeth Archives, verified by the site's authors
Engineer's Reports
MT 106/299 for details on commissioning and funding


West Cross Route

Route, Clapham Junction - Holland Park
MT 106/188
CM 08
Route, Holland Park - Westway
This road is as-built before 1973.
T 319/1842 confirms the whole route.
Route, Westway - Willesden Junction
MT 106/437
Elevated motorway with three or four lanes
MT 106/188
Interchange at Chelsea, and alternative plans
MT 106/188 for complex looped interchange
Check - not sure? for east-facing directional interchange

Designs for A4 interchange
MT 106/188 for stacked roundabout
Check - not sure? for west-facing directional interchange
Dual carriageway proposal forking to two bridges
Western Environmental Improvement Route
West London Assessment Study, Stage II. Viewed at Richmond Archives. Detailed page to follow.
Mention of proposal to link Chelsea and Victoria Embankments
LA 02 mentions this plan - detailed diagrams and documents yet to be located


Camden Town Bypass

Route, Camden Road - Euston Road
MT 106/437 includes full engineering diagrams
HLG 159/2457

Oval Road cantilever over bypass
MT 106/437 for written description of the route
Artist's impression
MT 106/437 for GLC publicity on 'new roads in N and E London'


Balham Loop

Route, Clapham - Brixton via Tulse Hill
T 319/1842 has the standard GLC map of Ringway 1, including the Balham Loop
Publication of route in 1966
Check this - sure there is a written summary of whole of R1 including BL, probably dated
Withdrawal of route in 1967
Report in Wandsworth Boro' News, 21/01/1967
MT 106/291 has GLC memo dated 23/01/1967

Map with Balham Loop crossed out
Quote from Southern Railway poster


Ringway 2

Objector arguing that R2 would only encourage cars

Objector from Strand-on-the-Green association


North Circular Road

Route, Hanger Lane - Woodford
This road was pre-existing
HLG 159/1024 indicates that the existing North Circular was to be upgraded
North Circular as Trunk Route
MT 106/151 indicates that, in 1961, the North Circular was the responsibility of the MoT

Ministry of Transport proposals, 1961
MT 106/151 for the report itself
MT 106/152 for accompanying plans and diagrams


Eastern Section

Route, Woodford - A13
GLC/TD/PM/CDO/07 shows new alignment that matches present
Route, A13 - Thamesmead
Route, Thamesmead - A2
A406 previously terminated at Gants Hill

Proposed designation M15
Roads in England, 1973/74 for section listed as A406 - A13
SJ 25 includes reference to M15 through the R2/M11/M12 junction
1960s preference for tunnel
Controversy surrounding Oxleas Wood
Resurrection of river crossing by Ken Livingstone
Referenced in The Guardian, 23 January 2002


Southern Section

Route, A2 - A23
Route, A23 - A24
Route, A24 - Wandsworth
Junctions at Grove Park
HLG 159/959
Double-deck and interchange at Elmer's End
HLG 159/2316

Layout of A21 interchange
Lewisham Mercury, 04/12/1969; "Here's the Secret M-Way Map and all the Details"
M23 terminal interchange
GLC proposal to roof over sections
GLC consider R2 high priority


Western Link

Route, Wandsworth - M4
Route, M4 - A40
MT 106/151
Lack of connection between motorway and relief roads in Wandsworth
MT 118/379 has plans of the local road network improvements with the motorway's location indicated, and does not show any connection to the motorway.
Artist's impression of motorway at Barnes Bridge
Uncredited press cutting at Richmond Local History Service. From the context it is likely to be from the Richmond Herald, 1966.
Four-level stack with A316
HLG 159/2274

Chiswick triangle, noise and demolition
HLG 159/936
HLG 159/2274
HLG 159/2342
Chiswick Flyover interchange
HLG 159/2274
Barnes Motorway Action Group
West London Assessment Study
West London Assessment Study, Stage II. Viewed at Richmond Archives. Detailed page to follow.


Ringway 3

Abercrombie's D-Ring as precursor
MT 106/413 includes written confirmation that several sections used D-Ring protected lines
MT 95/85 includes plans of the D-ring at locations that match known routings of Ringway 3
GLC discussing only three ring roads

Ringway 3 as route for long-distance traffic
MT 106/413, related to 'D-Ring' being constructed entirely as motorway in 1966
Ministry plan for Outer Orbital motorway M45
MT 112/67


Northern Section

Route, M1 - Bignell's Corner
This line is a best-guess and no source documents whatsoever have been found for an official line between Bushey and Bignell's Corner. However, there are some Geographia maps with a potential route on them.
M31 Consultants' Report has outline of route, although it does not quite reach Bignell's Corner
Route, Bignell's Corner - Potter's Bar
As built before 1973
Route, Potter's Bar - A12
As planned before 1973
Unbuilt junction at A11

Use of M16 designation before opening
Use of temporary A1178 number
Incorporated into full-circle M25


Eastern Section

Route, A12 - A20
AT 56/98 confirms that what is now M25 between M11 and Dartford was programmed as Ringway 3/M16

Southern Section

Route, A20 - Addington
MT 120/169 has outline route
Route, Addington - Thames
MT 120/169 includes outline route
Alternative route, Addington - Chessington
Consultants still investigating routes in 1971
MT 120/272 indicates possible routes between M4 and A20 under investigation, in memo dated September 1971

Newspaper report concerning "final route"
HLG 159/1318 indicates a plan was published in Sutton and Cheam Advertiser, 23/07/1970, but so far we have been unable to track down that particular edition of this newspaper
No final route ever selected
MT 120/272 and HLG 159/321 both suggest the route was with consultants in 1971, and the final report of their findings was not due
Engineering standards
MT 120/272 indicates urban dual-4 alignment changes to rural dual-3 at a grid line on the plans in the absence of detailed study on where the change should occur


Western Section

Route, Thames - M3
Route, M3 - M4 - Yeading
Route, options at Yeading
Route, MoT option Yeading - South Oxhey
Check (same as GLC route)
Route, GLC option Yeading - South Oxhey
Check (same as MoT route)
MT 106/291 for 1964 route through Stanmore and Harrow to M1 junction 3
Ministry line v GLC line
Settled in favour of Ministry line before GDLP inquiry, The Times, 13-03-71
HLG 159/321 has report comparing the two options

R3 connecting to M3 junction 1
R3 connecting to M3 at new junction at Upper Halliford (inc. reserved land and property dispute)
MT 120/169
Cost comparison of Ministry and GLC route options
HLG 159/321, including GLC argument that their line was "more accessible"
Previous plans for D-Ring and to link M1 and Heathrow by dual carriageway
MT 106/291
Memo indicating urban or rural motorway standard
MT 106/413
File suggesting route number M16 between A4020 and M1
MT 106/118
Hansard, 07-11-72
Ringway 3 still at least partially in roads programme in 1977
Hansard, 05-04-77


Ringway 4

Abercrombie plan for outer parkways
CM 10 (Greater London Plan, 1944)

North Orbital Road

Route, Navestock - M11
MT 120/169 has outline maps
Route, M11 - Hatfield
MT 120/169 has outline maps
Route, Hatfield Bypass

Route, Hatfield - Watford
MT 120/169 has text description
Proposed as all-purpose road
MT 120/169 implies very strongly
A1170 Dinant Link Road as R4


Western Section

Route, Hunton Bridge - Maple Cross
M31 Consultants' Report has outline of route
Route, Maple Cross - Staines
M31 Consultants' Report has outline of route

Route, Staines - River Thames
M31 Consultants' Report has outline of route


Southern Section

Route, River Thames - A3
Shown in M31 Consultants' Report
Route, A3 - M23
Route, M23 - M20

Link south-west of M25/M3 interchange
May be part of non-preferred M31 Red Route. Dotted line shown in M31 Consultants' Report
Stacked roundabout interchange at A21
MT 121/57 has full diagrams, including proposed MSA.


Denham Spur

Route, Denham - Ruislip Common
GLC/TD/C/P/02 indicates line as planned in 1965

Oversize bridges at Denham built without authority
Denham Spur emails


Northern Radials

M1

Route, St Albans - A406
GLC/TD/C/P/02 confirms this was to be incorporated as-is
Route, A406 - Kilburn
MT 106/437 has full engineering diagrams for this section
M1 final section opened 1977
UK Motorway Archive confirms dates.

A406 flyover pre-existing at 1977
1970s and 80s proposals for extension to WEIR


PNLR (Possible North London Radial)

Route, Dyrham Park - Ringway 1
GLC/TD/PM/CDO/07 shows route in full
Route, Ringway 1 - Kings Cross

Interchange with North Cross Route
MT 106/437 has diagrams
Names PNLR and Kings Cross Radial
GLC/TD/PM/CDO/07 for PNLR
MT 106/437 for King's Cross Radial


M11

Route, Harlow - A406
Route, A406 - Hackney Wick
GLC/TD/PM/CDO/07 has multiple route options
Route, Hackney Wick - Angel
Route, alternative Lee Valley line
GLC/TD/PM/CDO/07 shows this line out to Harlow
Restricted access interchange with R3
T 319/2655 has diagram

Layout of interchange with M12 and R2
SJ 25
Hackney Wick interchange
GLC/TD/PM/CDO/07 has various allusions to layout
Eastern Avenue Extension
A12 not on proposed line of M11
GLC/TD/PM/CDO/07 has multiple options, none of which match A12


M12

Route, Woodford - Brentwood
AT 56/98 & MT 106/280
Route, Brentwood - Maplin Sands alternative
AT 56/98
Route, Brentwood - Chelmsford alternative
Trunk Roads, England into the 1990s
Terminal interchange at Woodford
SJ 25
Return to Woodford - Brentwood routing after cancellation of Maplin Airport
Roads in England 1981

Havering-atte-Bower service area
MT 106/280
Gallows Corner spur and temporary flyover
MT 106/280
Noak Hill spur
Maplin Airport route with parallel railway
AT 56/98


M13

Route, Maplin Sands - Blackwall (via Rayleigh)
AT 56/98
Route, Maplin Sands - Blackwall (via Thames Estuary)
AT 56/98

Suggestion of plans for a barrage near Southend
Proposal for two motorways to Maplin Airport
AT 56/98
HLG 159/462


Western Radials

A41(M)

Route, Hemel Hempstead - Hunton Bridge
Indicated as "motorway projected" on Ordnance Survey Landranger sheet 166 revision A* published April 1975
Route, Hunton Bridge - M1
Existence of route, Roads in England 1971/72

Tring Bypass completed in 1970s
Listed as under construction, Roads in England 1973/74
Hunton Bridge as terminus of M25
MT 138/44


A40, A40(M) or M40

Route, High Wycombe - Denham
GLC/TD/C/P/02 shows M40 route was built as planned
Route, Denham - Shepherd's Bush
GLC/TD/C/P/02 indicates on-line improvement was expected throughout
Route, Shepherd's Bush - Marylebone
R4 to connect at Denham (M40 junction 1)
MT 121/57 & MT 106/291 show R4 approaching M40 from south and terminating
HLG 159/479 shows R4 via M40 continuing towards Maple Cross

R4 to connect at present M25 junction
Sliproads at Denham designed with provision for spur
Denham Spur emails
Spur to R1 at Gypsy Corner
MT 106/437 has engineering plans


M4

Route, Slough - Chiswick
GLC/TD/C/P/02 has this route incorporated as-is
Route, Chiswick - Earl's Court
Possibility of widening Chiswick elevated section

Limited-access proposal for Chiswick Roundabout
HLG 159/2274
Free-flow proposal for Chiswick Roundabout
Confusion over status Chiswick - Earl's Court


M3 or A316

Route, Staines - Sunbury
GLC/TD/C/P/02 shows the route of M3 was to be incorporated as-is
Route, Sunbury - Richmond
GLC/TD/C/P/02 has a primary route planned on the current line of A316 Country Way
Route, Richmond Bypass
GLC/TD/C/P/02 indicates an online improvement of A316 at Richmond, dated 1965
Newspaper reports at Richmond Local History Service also dated 1965 show Richmond Council approved a bypass to the north of the town
Route, Richmond - Chiswick
GLC/TD/C/P/02 indicates an on-line upgrade of A316 from Manor Circus to Hogarth Roundabout

Local authority plans for Richmond bypass
Local authority change and rejection of bypass
GLC suggesting M3 to Chiswick until 1973


A3

Route, Esher Bypass
Route, Kingston Bypass
Route, Robin Hood Gate - Wandsworth

Abercrombie considered A3 unsuitable as Parkway
Esher Bypass proposed as motorway


Southern Radials

M23

Route, Redhill - Hooley
Route, Hooley - Streatham Vale
Route, Streatham Vale - Tooting Bec Common
London - Brighton Motorways planned 1906 and 1924
Proposed London - Crawley Motorway Consultant's Report, March 1964

Deletion of Streatham Vale - Tooting Bec Common section
Considered for number M2
MT 112/67
Terminus on "Tooting Bec - Tulse Hill Link"
Proposed London - Crawley Motorway Consultant's Report, March 1964
Plan formally cancelled in 1995


SCRPDR (South Cross Route to Parkway D Radial)

Route, Brixton - Elmer's End
Proposed London - Crawley Motorway Consultant's Report, March 1964
T 319/1842 includes this section in the GLC map of Ringway 1
Route, Elmer's End - Addington
Proposed London - Crawley Motorway Consultant's Report, March 1964
Descended from Abercrombie's Parkway E
Parkway E name used in MT 106/413
Name 'South Cross Route to Parkway D Radial'

Name 'Hastings Radial'
Proposed London - Crawley Motorway Consultant's Report, March 1964
Double-deck interchange with R2
HLG 159/2316
Line protected by GLC in 1964
Lambeth Council lobby for removal of protection
HLG 159/1373


A20, M20 or A20(M)

Route, Kidbrooke - A208
HLG 159/1257
HLG 159/2508
Route, A208 - Swanley
Route, Swanley - Wrotham
Route, Swanley - Wrotham southern alternative

Junction layouts, Kidbrooke - A208
HLG 159/1257 has the whole 'Eltham box' including several alternative arrangements
Road in deep cutting next to A20
HLG 159/2508 shows cross-section in diagram
Use of number A20(M)
HLG 159/2508 uses A20(M) number extensively
Use of number M20


A2, M2 or A2(M)

Route, Kidbrooke - Falconwood
HLG 159/1257 has plans matching as-built A2 through Eltham
Route, Falconwood - Dartford
Route, Dartford - Gravesend
A282 interchange intended as A2/R3 junction

Eltham section built in 1980s
Woolwich Borough Council objection to Eltham section
Use of number A2(M)
Roads in England 1973-74
Use of number M2
Use of number A102(M) for Dover Radial Route
Roads in England 1971-72